The BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey constitutes the longest running and most comprehensive survey of its kind, using advanced analytic tools. It details the incidence of the main mycotoxins occurring in agricultural commodities, which include: aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA).
The survey focuses on components that are used for feed such as corn, wheat, barley, rice, soybean meal, corn gluten meal, dried distillers grains (DDGS) and silage, among others.
From January to March 2018, 16,231 analyses were conducted on 3,857 finished feed and raw commodity samples sourced from 60 countries.
Overall, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins were detected in 68% and 67% of all samples at average levels of 878 ppb and 1,791 ppb, respectively. Out of all samples, 53% are contaminated by ZEN, whereas Afla, T-2 and OTA are present in less than 20% of samples; 17%, 18% and 17%, respectively (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Occurrence of mycotoxins worldwide through Q1 2018. Average of all samples collected by BIOMIN.
A full 90% of all samples contained at least one mycotoxin, and 68% of all samples contained two or more mycotoxins (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins worldwide through Q1 2018. Average of all samples collected by BIOMIN.
With 6 mycotoxins above the risk threshold, Europe faces a severe contamination risk. The most prevalent mycotoxin in this region was DON, detected in 63% of the samples, followed by FUM, detected in 59% of the samples. The highest contamination found in a single sample was 40,700 ppb for ON and 26,144 ppb for FUM.
In Asia the average concentration of 6 mycotoxins is above the risk threshold, hence this region is facing a severe contamination risk. The most prevalent mycotoxin was FUM, detected in 78% of samples, followed by DON, detected in 63% of samples analyzed. The incidence of Afla was rather low with 34% of samples analyzed contaminated with this mycotoxin, and it has been decreasing compared to the previous years. The average concentration of FUM in this region represents a threat to piglets and finishing pigs (1244 ppb). The maximum FUM concentration recorded was 27,352 ppb.
North America faces a severe risk of mycotoxin contamination as well. DON and FUM were the most prevalent mycotoxins in feed samples, detected in 62% and 49% of samples respectively. The average concentrations of FUM and DON in this region maybe a problem for pigs and poultry. Maximum concentrations of DON and FUM were very high in this region (9,133 and 50,734 ppb respectively).
South and Central America
These regions face a high contamination risk having 5 mycotoxins average concentrations above the risk threshold. DON is the highest prevalent mycotoxin and was found in 73% of samples, followed by FUM and ZEN, identified in 71% and 58% of samples respectively. Afla, T-2 and OTA were detected in 14%, 23% and 7% of samples respectively. South America shows the highest maximum concentration of FUM and DON worldwide (70,418 and 24,880 ppb respectively).
With 4 mycotoxins average concentrations above the risk threshold, the Middle East faces a high contamination risk. The most prevalent mycotoxins in this region were FUM, followed by ZEN and DON, detected in 93%, 65% and 64% of samples respectively. The highest maximum concentration detected in Middle East was 4,161 ppb FUM.
With 3 mycotoxins above the risk threshold South Africa faces a moderate contamination risk. DON, FUM and ZEN were the most prevalent mycotoxins detected in 79%, 78% and 78% of samples respectively. The highest FUM concentration in a single sample was 14,427 ppb.
These BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey findings show that recent mycotoxin occurrence is quite high. The mycotoxin problem can be addressed through valid farm management strategies and the use of a registered mycotoxin deactivator whose efficiency is scientifically proven.